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Citation Style: ASA: Home

Cite Your Sources

You must provide in-text citations and a bibliograhy or reference list whenever you quote or paraphrase ideas from other authors, in order to:

  • Provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work. It shows that you have sought out and considered a variety of viewpoints on a given topic.
  • Show the depth and scope of your research and give credit to authors for their ideas.
  • Help readers to locate and further explore the sources you consulted.
  • Avoid charges of plagiarism.
  • Direct quotations from a book, article, film, letter, email, lecture, etc.
  • Ideas you draw from a source but present entirely in your own words.
  • Facts or ideas which are not common knowledge.
  • Not just books and articles but statistical data, websites, blogs, etc
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Citation generators

The following citation builders are freely available from the Internet.  The NUS Libraries, however, do not provide support for any of these tools.

Where do you Cite?

Citation occurs in 2 areas in a written work.

How to generate references in Sociology databases?

Database providers such as ProQuest and Scopus provide citation generating tools for items found in their databases. To ensure accuracy of the citations you create,  do check with the ASA style guides and manuals. Follow the steps below to generate citations from the results page:

ProQuest Databases  (e.g. Sociological Abstracts)

  1. At the results display page, mark relevant records.
  2. Select the  menu on the top right-hand corner.
  3. A new "Cite" window will open. Select the preferred citation style (e.g. ASA) from the drop-down menu.
  4. Click "Done".


  1. Mark relevant records and click on Create  Bibliography.
  2. At the Output page, look under Bibliography, select Format (HTML)
  3. Select your preferred style e.g. APA.
  4. Click "Create".

Bibliographic management software

  is a software that:

  • stores and organizes citations found from many sources 
  • inserts these citations into a Word document 
  • automatically formats references according to a predefined citation style.

Go to EndNote Libguide

 is a citation management tool that:

  • collects & organizes citations
  • insert these citations into documents & format bibliographies 
  • it also lets you drag & drop PDFs into your library & extracts the metadata to create a library
  • highlights and annotates your PDFs and share them with others
  • syncs your citations across multiple computers and makes them accessible anywhere via Mendeley Web.

Go to Mendeley Libguide