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Sociology: Citation styles

A guide to access the vast array of resources the Libraries has in relation to Sociology

Cite Your Sources

You must provide in-text citations and a bibliograhy or reference list whenever you quote or paraphrase ideas from other authors, in order to:

  • Provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work. It shows that you have sought out and considered a variety of viewpoints on a given topic.
  • Show the depth and scope of your research and give credit to authors for their ideas.
  • Help readers to locate and further explore the sources you consulted.
  • Avoid charges of plagiarism.
  • Direct quotations from a book, article, film, letter, email, lecture, etc.
  • Ideas you draw from a source but present entirely in your own words.
  • Facts or ideas which are not common knowledge.
  • Not just books and articles but statistical data, websites, blogs, etc
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Citation generators

The following citation builders are freely available from the Internet.  The NUS Libraries however, do not provide support for any of these tools.

Other Citation Styles

ASA style guides

The American Sociological Association (ASA) style guides and manuals below provide instructions and examples on how to create footnotes and bibliographies in research papers. Some include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods as well as guidelines on formatting the final paper.

Your instructors/tutors may require you to cite using another style e.g. APA style. Check with them if you are not sure.

Print/Online guides

What's EndNote

EndNote X7 is available from the NUS Computer Centre's Software Catalogue.

EndNote is a software that:

  • stores and organizes references found from many sources
  • inserts these references into a Word document 
  • automatically formats your references according to a predefined citation style, and more! 

If you're new to EndNote, check out the Installation Instructions and Step by Step Guide.