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APA Citation Style: Online / Web Sources

This guide provides examples of references cited based on the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Most examples and all guidelines are extracted from the APA Publication Manual.

Between Online and Print References

APA Style references for online and print works are largely the same.

All references generally include the principles elements of reference list entries:

author: who is responsible for this work?

date: when was this work published?

title: what is this work called?

source. where can I retrieve this work?

Differences between online and print versions could be seen in the source element (see DOIs and URLs below for more details).

 

Using Webpages and Websites as Reference

When to use webpages and websites category?

  • no other reference category that fits
  • no parent or overarching publication (eg. journal, blog, conference proceedings) other than the website itself.

If multiple webpages from a website is cited, create a reference for each.

If website is mentioned only general, do not create a reference list entry or an in-text citation.

  • include the name of the website in the text and provide the URL in parentheses.

Website Sources

Guidelines to format the website source:

  • Provide the website name (in title case without italics) in the source element: eg. Healthhub.
  • Include a period after the website name, followed by the URL
  • If the author is the same as the website name, omit the site name from the source element. As such, the source element will only have the work's URL 

For webpage reference example, please refer to: https://libguides.nus.edu.sg/APA/references

DOIs and URLs

Guidelines for including DOIs and URLs in references:

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • If an online work has a URL but no DOI, include the URL in the reference

For details, refer to Chapter 9 (9.3 Online and Print References, p 282) of the APA Publication Manual (7th Ed.)