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APA Style (6th ed.) : Main

This guide provides examples of references cited according to the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Most examples and all guidelines are extracted from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing)

Why Cite?

  • To acknowledge intellectual debt
  • To lend support to arguments by referring to authoritative sources
  • To help readers verify your claims
  • To show research done

Reference Software

  is a software that:

  • stores and organizes citations found from many sources 
  • inserts these citations into a Word document 
  • automatically formats references according to a predefined citation style.

Go to EndNote guide

is a software that:

  • lets you collect & organize citations, & then easily insert them into documents & format bibliographies
  • drag and drop PDFs into your library & extracts the metadata to create a library
  • highlight and annotate your PDFs and share them with others

Go to Mendeley guide

Where do you Cite?

Citation occurs in 2 areas in a written work.
  • In-text Citation : Providing basic information on your source of reference in your text itself. This is necessary when you are quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing from a source.
  • Reference List : Purpose is to help readers find the references used in your text.

APA Style Guides

The American Psychological Association (APA) style guides and manuals below provide instructions and examples of how to create footnotes and bibliographies in research papers. Some include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods, and guidelines on formatting the final paper.

Citation Generators

The following citation builders are freely available from the Internet.  The NUS Libraries however, do not provide support for any of these tools.