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American Sociological Association (ASA) Style: Home

Why Cite?

  • To acknowledge intellectual debt
  • To lend support to arguments by referring to authoritative sources
  • To help readers verify your claims
  • To show research done

Where do you Cite?

Citation occurs in 2 areas in a written work.
  • In-text Citation : Providing basic information on your source of reference in your text itself. This is necessary when you are quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing from a source.
  • Reference List : Purpose is to help readers find the references used in your text.

Related Guides

ASA Style Guide

  • The ASA (American Sociological Association) Style is closely related in appearance and function to the APA (American Psychological Association) style.
  • As with APA style, ASA style requires that sources receive attribution in the text by the use of parenthetical in-text references. 
  • The "author-date" in-text citation system is a readily recognizable feature of ASA style. 

The following list covers the authoritative ASA Style Guide 6th ed. Included also are selected online guides that provide instructions and examples on how to create in-texts and bibliographies/reference lists in research papers. Some may include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods as well as guidelines on formatting the final paper.

   Online Guides   

Know about Plagiarism

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Citation Generators

The following citation builders are freely available on the web. NUS Libraries, however, do not provide support for any of these tools.