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American Sociological Association (ASA) Style: In-Text Citation

In-Text citation

Generally, in-text citations include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Also, note that unlike the APA style, there are no commas between the last name and the year of publication.

Single author

If author's name is in the text, add publication year in parentheses:

  • Duncan (1959) studied...

If the name is not in the text, put the last name and publication year in parentheses:

  • The results of the study (Gouldner 1963)... 

Joint authors

  • ...(Martin and Bailey 1988)
  • Martin and Bailey (1988) wrote...

Three authors

First citation for a work with three authors:

  • ...results (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962)

Subsequent citations:

  • ...(Carr et al. 1962)

Four or more authors

For first and subsequent citations:

  • Carr et al. (1962)...
  • ...(Carr et al. 1962)

In-Text citation (Cont'd)

Institutional or government authorship

Minimum identification:

  • There is currently no minimum reserve rent requirement for tender of vacant stalls in hawker centres (Singapore National Environment Agency 2012)

If the name is long and if the abbreviation is readily understandable, you may abbreviate the name in the second and subsequent citations.

  • ...(NEA 2012)

Multiple consecutive citations

List in either alphabetical or date order consistently throughout the manuscript. Separate with semicolons.

  • ...(Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop 1989).

Direct quote

If a direct quote or specific passage is used, add the page number after the year of publication:

  • ...Kuhn (1970:71)

Unpublished materials

Indicate forthcoming for materials scheduled for publication. Cite date for dissertations and unpublished/working papers. If no date is available, use N.d.(no date) in place of the date.

  • In previous studies, Smith (forthcoming) examined...
  • Jones (n.d.) experimented...