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Cite your sources
- Citing your sources helps you to avoid plagiarism.
- Readers can go back and look at your sources if they'd like to follow up or read further.
- By demonstrating how widely you've researched a topic, your own argument ends up being more credible.
- Citations can show you've considered a wide variety of opinions when forming your own argument.
- Citing is standard practice in academic conversations. Scholars have been debating ideas through written works for years and citing is a way of respecting those who've engaged in the topic before you.
- Citing gives you the opportunity to show off your research abilities!
You must cite the source when you...
- Paraphrase someone's ideas.
- Mention someone's ideas.
- Summarize a source.
- Quote someone's exact words
- Use numerical data, such as statistics.
- Use an image, such as a picture or a diagram.
- Use multimedia, such as a video, an animation, or an audio recording.
- Mention a fact that is not common knowledge.
Citing mainly occurs in these areas of your paper :
- In-text citation
- An in-text citation is a reference made within the body of text of an academic essay. Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your bibliography or reference list.
Examples of in-text citations:
|APA format example:
The sky is blue (Cottrell, 2013).
|ACS format example:
The sky is blue.1
|IEEE format example:
The sky is blue .
- Reference list or Bibliography
- A reference list and a bibliography look very much alike. They both contain entries arranged alphabetically for example, by author, and they include the same basic information. The difference lies not so much in how they look as in what they contain. The purpose is to help the reader uniquely identify and access each source.
A bibliography is a detailed list of works cited in your paper, plus the background readings or other material that you may have read, but not actually cited.
A reference list is the detailed list of references that are cited in your work. For example, in APA Style, each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.
- Footnotes / Endnotes
- Some academic disciplines (such as history & political science) prefer to use footnotes (notes at the foot of the page) or endnotes (notes at the end of the work) to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the usual "'author, date'" system, it serves the same purpose, i.e. to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing.
This depends on the following:
- What type of work you are writing?
There are different citation styles for different disciplines. For example, when you cite sources in a psychology (APA style) paper you would probably use a different form of citation than you might in a paper for an English (MLA style) class.
- How you are using the borrowed material?
Identify your sources. If your sources are very important to your ideas, you should mention the author and work in a sentence that introduces your citation. If, however, you are only citing the source to make a minor point, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes.
- The expectations of your instructor!
Save time by consulting your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper.
Adapted from How do I cite sources?,© 2017 Turnitin, LLC.
Guides on Writing
The Political Science Student Writer's Manual by This comprehensive, practical writer's manualcreated specifically for political science writersis designed to helpreaders accomplish two goals: 1) improve their writing skills and strategies and 2) learn political science at the same time. The manual considers the different types of papers common to political science writing at all levels, at the introductory level, and at the advanced levelexploring the purposes and characteristics of each paper, the steps for writing a successful paper, and typical formats. The book provides a handbook of style for political science, including formats and source-citing, a guide to distance learning and the Internet, guidelines for conducting research in political science, plus writing assignments for varied levels of writers. For individuals interested in improving their writing techniques and learning more about political science.
Call Number: JA86 Sco 2002
Publication Date: 2001-05-18
Writing a Research Paper in Political Science : a practical guide to inquiry, structure, and methods. 2nd ed. by Even students capable of writing excellent essays still find their first major political science research paper an intimidating experience. Crafting the right research question, finding good sources, properly summarizing them, operationalizing concepts and designing good tests for their hypotheses, presenting and analyzing quantitative as well as qualitative data are all tough-going without a great deal of guidance and encouragement. This writing guide breaks down the research paper into its constituent parts and shows students what they need to do at each stage to successfully complete components until the paper is finished. Even writing an introduction, coming up with effective headings and titles, presenting a conclusion, and the important steps of editing and revising are covered with class-tested advice and know-how. In addition to using updated examples of student topics that pull from both American government and international relations, Baglione also includes examples of actual student writing to show readers how someone "just like them" accomplished tasks while writing their papers. Practical summaries, calendars, exercises, and a series of handy checklists make this a must-have supplement for any writing-intensive political science course.
Call Number: JA86 Bag 2012
Publication Date: 2011-08-25
Writing in Political Science by Writing in Political Science: A Brief Guide applies the key concepts of rhetoric and composition - audience, purpose, genre, and credibility - to examples based in political science. It is part of a series of brief, discipline-specific writing guides from Oxford University Press designed fortoday's writing-intensive college courses. The series is edited by Tom Deans (University of Connecticut) and Mya Poe (Northeastern University).
Call Number: JA86 Lav 2015
Publication Date: 2016-01-22
Writing Research Papers in the Social Sciences by Using the same step-by-step guidance that made Writing Research Papers 11e the definitive research paper guide, this text will enable students in the social science disciplines and in some freshman composition classes to create research papers that advance or defend a theory, offer a review of research methodology, or create a paper from their own empirical research using the APA style. Writing Research Papers in the Social Sciences provides sample papers demonstrating the rules of documentation as well as the writing style for the social sciences while detailing the uses of new computer technologies students are using today.
Call Number: PE1479 Soc.Le 2006
Publication Date: 2005-12-27
Popular citation style guides
The Chicago citation style is the preferred style for History and some Social Science disciplines because the use of footnotes enable the writer to add contextual information and annotations to the sources they referenced in their writing.
Harvard citation style is also known as the author-date referencing style. This guide will show you illustrations of common Harvard citations, guides for extensive needs for Harvard citation and some recommendations on how to manage citations in general.
This list of MLA (Modern Language Association) style guides and manuals provide instructions and examples of how to create footnotes and bibliographies in research papers. Some include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods, and guidelines on formatting the final paper.