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Information Literacy, Critical Thinking, Evidence-based Medicine and Research Methodology
This longitudinal track aims to enable all students to gather and critically evaluate research information, effectively incorporate the selected information into their knowledge base and apply the knowledge in patient care, and also to lay thefoundation for future training in carrying out high quality research.
This is not a comprehensive subject guide, but rather a selective list of materials that are most useful for this track of study.
Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Pyramid
Quality guidelines are produced or endorsed by national, health or medical organization, professional society or expert panel.
Aim for studies that are higher on the "pyramid"
ACP Journal Club
Editors of this Journal screen top clinical journals on a regular basis and identify studies that are both methodologically sound and clinically relevant. They write an enhanced abstract of the chosen articles and provide a commentary on the value of the article for clinical practice. (Via NUS Library Portal; Restricted)
UpToDate is an evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource for point-of-care decisions. More than 5,700 world-renowned physician authors, editors and peer reviewers use a rigorous editorial process to synthesize the most recent medical information into trusted, evidence-based recommendations that are proven to improve patient care and quality.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR)
Supervised by a Cochrane Review Group (editorial team), Cochrane Reviews attempts to identify, appraise and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a specific research question. Researchers conducting systematic reviews use explicit, systematic methods that are selected with a view aimed at minimizing bias, to produce more reliable findings to inform decision-making. They are updated to reflect the findings of new evidence when it becomes available because the results of new studies can change the conclusions of a review. Cochrane Reviews are therefore valuable sources of information for those receiving and providing care, as well as for decision-makers and researchers.
TRIP database ( free version)
Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.
Best Evidence Topics ( Free)
Best evidence topics are sometimes referred to as Best BETs. These topics are developed and supported for situations or setting when the high levels of evidence don't fit or are unavailable. They originated from emergency medicine providers' need to conduct rapid evidence-based clinical decisions.
Via PubMed (National Library of Medicine, US)
Use Limits Feature Tab: Under Publication Types, select Review.
Find Systematic Reviews in the Clinical Queries Feature: Consists of stored search strategies for retrieving Systematic Reviews.
Use Limits Feature Tab: Under Publication Types, select Meta-Analysis.
Use Limits Feature Tab: Under Publication Types, select Randomized Controlled Trials.
Major European biomedical and pharmaceutical database. Search your drug or disease topic in EMBASE. Then click on Edit and then LIMIT, then MORE LIMITS. An Evidence Based Medicine Box will appear where you can choose from Cochrane Review, Systematic Review, Controlled Clinical Trial, etc.
Psychological publications . To limit your search to the best evidence-producing studies: scroll down the search page to the Methodology box. There you will find selections such as Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial.
Patient care, including nursing and allied health. To limit your search to evidence-based literature, scroll down the search page and either select appropriate EBM type studies (systematic review, controlled trial, etc.) from the Publication Type box OR in the Special Interest box select Evidence Based Practice OR click Evidence-based Practice box on the left.
Search across a large collection of medical texts, of which Harrison's Internal Medicine is the flagship. Drug information, videos, patient education, and more.
Introduction to EBM
Definition from MeSH (via PubMed)
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)