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Standards: Eurocodes

This subject guide gives an introduction about Standards and covers major sets of standards available at NUS Libraries: Singapore Standards, British Standards, IEC Standards, IEEE Standards and ASTM standards.

Introduction to Eurocodes and National Annexes

Eurocodes are a set of harmonized European standards for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering structures. There are 10 of them made up of 58 parts.

  • EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural design (head code, to use with other Eurocodes)
  • EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Action on structures (10 parts)
  • EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures (4 parts)
  • EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures (20 parts)
  • EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design on composite steel and concrete structures (3 parts)
  • EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures (3 parts)
  • EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures (4 parts)
  • EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design (2 parts)
  • EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance (6 parts)
  • EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures (5 parts)

(Referred from European Commission > Joint Research Centre > Eurocodes

National Annexes (NAs) are documents produced by individual countries adopting Eurocodes that specifies parameters such as climate and legislation to account for local differences. They are used in conjunction with the Eurocodes. For example, the ​​​​prefix for the NAs produced by the UK for the Eurocodes adopted is NA to BS EN.

There are two common misconceptions when it comes to using Eurocodes and National Annexes. See "Common Misconceptions on Eurocodes and National Annexes" below.

Common Misconceptions on Eurocodes and National Annexes

1. I need a Eurocode adopted by Singapore, e.g. SS EN 1991-2 (2010) but I could not find it. Can I use the soft copy of BS EN 1991-2:2003 from British Standards Online instead?

 It depends on whether Singapore follows the December 2004 and April 2010 amendments that the British made. Do not let the date 2003 mislead you into thinking the standard was last updated in 2003. You are recommended to view the full standard document to confirm.

The Library is unable to advise if Singapore follows any of the corrigenda for any of the British standard.

In the British standard itself, the start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags. E.g.

i. What is indicated within those tags might not apply to Singapore.

ii. The rest of the British standard is exactly the same as the Singapore standard and the original European standard.

2. I need the National Annex to SS EN 1991-2 (2010) but I could not find it. Can I use the National Annex to BS EN 1991-2:2003, since the soft copy is available in British Standards Online?

No, because national annexes differ from country to country.

Adoption of Eurocodes by Singapore

Eurocodes came into effect on 1 April 2013. The table below lists the Eurocodes adopted by Singapore, either in full or in parts. To find Eurocodes, see Major Standards.

Prefix for Eurocodes adopted by Singapore: SS EN

Prefix for the accompanying National Annexes: NA to SS EN


 Code Ref

 Title and # Parts in Standard/NA

 Remarks on adoption 


 SS EN 1990

 Basis of structural design

  • 1 part, 1 NA



 SS EN 1991

 Actions on structures

  • 9 parts, 9 NAs

EN 1991-1-3 not adopted


 SS EN 1992

 Design of concrete structures

  • 4 parts, 4 NAs



 SS EN 1993

 Design of steel structures (20 parts, 14 NAs)

  • 20 parts, 14 NAs


No NAs for Parts 1-6,  1-7, 3-2, 4-1, 4-2, 4-3


 SS EN 1994

 Design of composite steel and concrete structures

  • 3 parts, 3 NAs


 6  SS EN 1995

 Design of timber structures

  • 2 parts, 2 NAs
EN 1995-2 not adopted


 SS EN 1997

 Geotechnical design

  • 2 parts, 2 NAs


 8  SS EN 1998

 Design of structures for earthquake resistance: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings

  • 1 part, 1 NA

EN 1998-2 to EN 1998-6 not adopted