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EndNote: Organizing References

EndNote (EN) is a software for automating the many repetitive steps involved in organizing and formatting the references and bibliography in your academic writing. EndNote Online is the web version of EN, with fewer features.

Need to ask some Frequently Asked Questions?

Organizing Your References

Once you have collected your references and inserted them into your EndNote Library, it is always useful to organize them so that you can be more efficient in your research and writing workflow.

Organizing Your EndNote Library

Groups are folders which you can use to organize your references. The naming of the Groups, the content in the Groups is dependent on your needs. You can choose your own naming convention and decide what references should be in each group.

Creating Groups

1. Right click on My Groups and select Create a Group and name your group

3. To move references into your custom groups, first click on All References.

4. Select single/multiple references and drag them into your desired custom groups

5. Alternatively, right-click on the references > Add References To > My Groups


Smart Groups are a special type of groups where a criteria set by you, is used to filter all the references in your EndNote Library. This is often useful for people who are tracking certain authors, titles or topics.

Note that once a Smart Group has been created, any new references added into your EndNote Library will automatically be filtered. It is also important to know that when you delete a reference from a Smart Group, it will also be deleted from your EndNote Library.

Creating a Smart Group

1. Right click on My Groups and select Create a Smart Group

2. Key in your criteria in the pop-up window and the click on Create. Your Smart Group will be created and references filtered:


To ensure that your EndNote Library stays lean and as error-free as possible, we recommend that you remove duplicates every time you have finished using EndNote to add reference. Having duplicates will only confuse EndNote when you Cite While You Write when writing your paper or project.

Setting Criteria for Detecting Duplicates

You can set the criteria in which EndNote will detect duplicates in your EndNote Library. To do so:

In the top menu bar, click on Edit --> Preferences --> Duplicates

You can then specify your criteria.

Removing Duplicates in Your EndNote Library

To remove duplicates:

First make sure you click on All References.

In the top menu bar, click on References -->Find Duplicates

If there are no duplicates, there will not be any pop-up. If EndNote does detect any duplicates, a popup will appear asking you to choose which reference to keep: