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Citation Styles: Citation Styles

Automatically generate citations from databases and catalogues. Use citation builders to create citations. Check authoritative guidelines for citation cyles.

Cite Your Sources

You must provide in-text citations and a bibliograhy or reference list whenever you quote or paraphrase ideas from other authors, in order to:

  • Provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work. It shows that you have sought out and considered a variety of viewpoints on a given topic.
  • Show the depth and scope of your research and give credit to authors for their ideas.
  • Help readers to locate and further explore the sources you consulted.
  • Avoid charges of plagiarism.
  • Direct quotations from a book, article, film, letter, email, lecture, etc.
  • Ideas you draw from a source but present entirely in your own words.
  • Facts or ideas which are not common knowledge.
  • Not just books and articles but statistical data, websites, blogs, etc
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Other Bibliographic Management Software


Zotero - Collect, Organize, Cite and Share your Research Sources
Zotero is a free bibliographic citation management software that allows you to save, collect, manage, cite, and share research sources. Zotero is available either as a Firefox extension or as standalone software that works with Firefox, Chrome and Safari browsers. It works right in your browser, making it easy to save you citations while you search.

Use the Zotero word processor plugins to easily cite your sources and create a bibliography while you work.

Note: While Zotero is a free software, the Zotero cloud storage has a limit of 2 gigabyte. Anything more than 2 gigabyte, you would have to pay for extra storage.

Mendeley is a citation management tool that, like many others, lets you collect & organize citations, & then easily insert them into documents & format bibliographies.  But it also lets you drag & drop PDFs into your library & extracts the metadata to create a library!

You can highlight and annotate your PDFs and share them with others.  Colleagues can then also annotate the same document, with each author displaying as a different color.

Use more than one computer?  It's not a problem!  Download Mendeley Desktop to as many computers as you want, then sync them with a click of your mouse.  Need to use your library away from your computer?  Mendeley Web gives you access to your citations no matter where you are.

Mendeley is social:  create a profile, follow other researchers, create a network of people doing similar research.  Discover the articles and journals that are being read in your field right now.

Create collections of papers.  Make them public & share them with an RSS feed (great for class reading lists!).

Click here to learn more about Mendeley!

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Citation generators

The following citation builders are freely available from the Internet.  The NUS Libraries however, do not provide support for any of these tools.

What's EndNote

EndNote X7 is available from the NUS Computer Centre's Software Catalogue.

EndNote is a software that:

  • stores and organizes references found from many sources
  • inserts these references into a Word document 
  • automatically formats your references according to a predefined citation style, and more! 

If you're new to EndNote, check out the Installation Instructions and Step by Step Guide.


Popular citation styles

Ask your module instructor/coordinator/tutor for the preferred citation style and if there are other special formatting instructions you should follow. Once you have determined the style to follow, use it consistently in your paper, bibliography or reference list.

The links below contain resources on popular citation styles:

  • ACS (American Chemical Society)
  • AMA (American Medical Association)
  • APA (American Psychological Association)
  • ASA ((American Sociological Association)
  • Chicago/Turabian  
  • Harvard
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • Legal Style
  • MLA (Modern Language Association)

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