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Citation Styles: Chicago/Turabian

Automatically generate citations from databases and catalogues. Use citation builders to create citations. Check authoritative guidelines for citation cyles.

Chicago/Turabian style guides

The Chicago/Turabian style guides/manuals below provide instructions and examples on how to create footnotes and bibliographies in research papers. Some include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods, and guidelines on formatting the final paper.

Managing Citation and References

Citation or reference managers such as Zotero and EndNote auto-create references by pulling in citations from databases, library catalogues as well as selected search engines. Citations can then be automatically added to your work and formatted in your preferred style.

ZoteroBib helps you build a bibliography instantly from any computer or device, without creating an account or installing any software. This is a community-based, powerful open-source research tool recommended by universities worldwide. It helps you to seamlessly add sources and produce bibliographies.

The following video on using ZoteroBib shows how to generate citations and to create a bibliography for your research assignment.

Chicago-Style Basics

The Chicago citation style is the preferred style for History and some subjects under Social Science because the use of footnotes enable the writer to add contextual information and annotations to the sources they referenced in their writing.

Footnotes were read as part of reading the main text, and are located on the same page, at the bottom of the page. The bibliography can be appended to the end of each chapter, but generally, it appears at the end of the entire work. 

The Manual prescribes both writing style and citation styles. In addition, several chapters addresses editorial practices, American English grammar and document preparation. 

Since 2003, the Chicago style permits the use of both in-text citation systems and/or footnotes or endnotes, including use of 'content notes'; it gives information about in-text citation by page number (such as MLA style), or by year of publication (like APA style).

We advise students to choose EITHER the use of footnotes (Notes and Bibliography) OR in-text (Author-Date) system, but not a combination of both, when using the Chicago Style.