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Citation Styles: Chicago/Turabian

Chicago/Turabian style guides

The Chicago/Turabian style guides/manuals below provide instructions and examples on how to create footnotes and bibliographies in research papers. Some include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods, and guidelines on formatting the final paper.

Chicago-Style Basics

The Chicago citation style is the preferred style for History and some subjects under Social Science because the use of footnotes enable the writer to add contextual information and annotations to the sources they referenced in their writing.

Footnotes were read as part of reading the main text, and are located on the same page, at the bottom of the page. The bibliography can be appended to the end of each chapter, but generally, it appears at the end of the entire work. 

The Manual prescribes both writing style and citation styles. In addition, several chapters addresses editorial practices, American English grammar and document preparation. 

Since 2003, the Chicago style permits the use of both in-text citation systems and/or footnotes or endnotes, including use of 'content notes'; it gives information about in-text citation by page number (such as MLA style), or by year of publication (like APA style).

We advise students to choose EITHER the use of footnotes (Notes and Bibliography) OR in-text (Author-Date) system, but not a combination of both, when using the Chicago Style.