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International and Comparative Law: Law in Foreign Jurisdictions

Sources of international law

Introduction

The jurisdictions in the table below have been selected to reflect the collection housed in the C J Koh Law Library. The legal systems, except those of ASEAN, China and Europe, are based on the English common law system.

For jurisdictions not listed, you may find relevant laws in the following websites:

Law in Foreign Jurisdictions

Go to the ASEAN Law Libguide.

A. Legislation/Parliament

AustLII (Australasian Legal Information Institute)
Full text databases contain consolidated Commonwealth and state legislation. The Australian Treaties Library which includes texts from the Australian Treaty Series is also housed here.

Federal Register of Legislation
The Legislation Register is the approved, whole-of-government website for Australian Government legislation and related documents. It contains the full text and details of the lifecycle of individual laws and the relationships between them. Managed by the Office of Parliamentary Counsel.

Parliament of Australia
Access to the Hansard as well as bills and accompanying explanatory memoranda.

B. Courts and Case Law

AustLII (Australasian Legal Information Institute)
Full text databases contain decisions of most Australian courts and tribunals.

Colonial Case Law
The Colonial case law project run by Macquarie University Law School makes available decisions of the superior courts of New South Wales and Tasmania from the 18th  and 19th centuries as well as unreported appeals from the Australian colonies to the Privy Council before 1850. Entries are based on a mixture of newspaper and manuscript accounts of court records.

Federal Court of Australia
Contains searchable full text judgments of the Federal Court, Australian Competition Tribunal, Copyright Tribunal, Industrial Relations Court and various other tribunals.

High Court of Australia
Judgments, transcripts, practice directions and annual reports of the High Court.

C. Government Documents

australia.gov.au : publications
Full texts of government publications including the Australian government gazettes.

Australian Government
Access to information and services of Australian, state, territory and local governments.

Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC)
Full texts of the Commission's publications, including reports, discussion and consultation papers.

D. General

Attorney-General's Department
Information relating to Australia's law and justice framework.

AustLII (Australasian Legal Information Institute)
A major resource of Australian legal information jointly operated by the Faculties of Law at the University of Technology, Sydney and the University of New South Wales. Contains full text databases of Commonwealth and state legislation as well as decisions of most Australian courts and tribunals.

Australian Copyright Council
Information on the copyright laws of Australia. Find answers to questions on copyright in useful fact sheets.

Research guides:

E. Databases

A. Legislation/Parliament

CanLII (Canadian Legal Information Institute)
Free access to Canadian federal, provincial and territorial legislation.

Canada Treaty Series
The CTS is published by the Treaty Law Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.

Justice Laws Website
Point-in-time access to consolidated Canadian Acts and regulations. Browse by title or use the Advanced Search function. Administered by the Department of Justice.

Laws of Other Provinces
LawCentral Alberta provides access to Canadian provincial and territorial statutes and regulations.

Parliament of Canada
Access to Canadian bills and parliamentary debates.

B. Courts and Case Law

CanLII (Canadian Legal Information Institute)
Free access to Canadian federal, provincial and territorial case law.

Federal Court of Appeal
Decisions of the court (1988-1990, 1996- )

Federal Court of Canada
Full text of Federal Court decisions (1972, 1976, 1978-81, 1983, 1990- ). Information on court processes and procedures.

Federal Courts Reports (FCR)
Court reports (1876-78, 1880-) published by the Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs.

Supreme Court Judgments
The Lexum collection contains Supreme Court of Canada judgments. The Supreme Court Reports (S.C.R.), dating back to 1878, are available in PDF.

Supreme Court of Canada
Information about the Canadian judicial system.

C. Government Documents

Government of Canada
Access to Canadian government information and services.

BCLI Publications
Contains the law reform reports of the British Columbia Law Institute. Website also contains links to other law reform bodies in Canada.

D. General

CanLII (Canadian Legal Information Institute)
An essential component of the legal information system in Canada, providing an integrated website for primary sources of Canadian federal, provincial and territorial law. Produced by the LexUM Laboratory and funded by the Federation of Law Societies of Canada.

Research guides:

E. Databases

A. Legislation/Parliament

China Legislative Information Network System
Database of China laws administered by the Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council. In Chinese only.

Laws of the People's Republic of China
Unofficial English translations of selected Chinese legislation and related documents published on AsianLII (1949-2007)

Laws and Regulations
English translations of China laws and regulations published on the Ministry of Justice of the People's Republic of China. Laws and regulations are also published by the State Council, the People's Republic of China.

B. Courts and Case Law

China Judgements Online
Full text of China court judgments. In Chinese. Maintained by the Supreme People's Court.

Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China
Information on the judicial system, and a selection of case summaries.

C. Government Documents

State Council of the People's Republic of China
Official government Web portal. Gateway to official publications, including white papers, and laws and regulations.

D. General

Arbitration Database
Contains China arbitration laws and rules. Free registration for content. In Chinese only.

China.org.cn
The China Internet Information Center provides access to up-to-date information on China laws and policies. This authorised government portal site to China is published under the auspices of the State Council Information Office and the China International Publishing Group.

AsianLII : China
Inclusion of databases from the People’s Republic of China in AsianLII is funded by the Australian Attorney-General’s Department. 

E. Databases

A. General

Council of Europe
International organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy, and the rule of law in Europe. It is Europe's leading human rights organisation. Website contains the basic texts and judgments of the European Court of Human RightsCouncil of Europe treaties are also available here.

Europa (The European Union On-Line)
Portal of the European Union, a political and economic union of 27 member states. Information on policies administered by the EU as well as access to websites of EU institutions including the

EUR-Lex
Portal to European Union Law. This system makes it possible to consult the Official Journal of the European Union and includes inter alia treaties, legislation, case law and legislative proposals.

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
Includes texts of EFTA Convention and free trade agreements between EFTA states and their partners.

The Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law & Justice
The Center focuses on the study of international and European economic integration and European Union law. Resources on this website include the Jean Monnet Working Paper Series

B. Databases

A. Legislation/Parliament

Department of Justice
Information on the Hong Kong legal system. Contains full texts of Hong Kong laws, including the Basic Law and treaties.

HKLII (Hong Kong Legal Information Institute)
Databases provide access to Hong Kong SAR ordinances and regulations, including historical laws.

Hong Kong e-Legislation (HKeL)
Database of Hong Kong legislation maintained by the Department of Justice. HKeL provides current and past versions of consolidated legislation dating back to 30 June 1997. PDF copies marked “verified copy” have official legal status.

Legislative Council
Proceedings of Council meetings (Hansard), bills, subsidiary legislation and rules of procedure.

B. Courts and Case Law

HKLII (Hong Kong Legal Information Institute)
Databases containing cases from from the various Hong Kong SAR courts and tribunals.

Judiciary
Official website of the Hong Kong SAR judiciary. Includes practice directions and selected judgments of the various courts.

C. Government Documents

GovHK
Gateway to all databases of government departments in Hong Kong SAR. Includes links to consultation papers, government gazettes and laws.

The Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong (LRC)
Full texts of the Law Commission's reports and consultation papers.

D. General

HKLII (Hong Kong Legal Information Institute)
Free access to Hong Kong primary legal materials and some publicly available secondary materials. HKLII is a project of the Law & Technology Centre, a centre jointly established by Department of Computer Science and Faculty of Law of the University of Hong Kong

Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEx)
Information includes trading and clearing rules governing Hong Kong's securities and futures markets.

Research Guides:

E. Databases

A. Legislation/Parliament

India Code
The India Code Information System (INCODIS) contains all Central Acts of Parliament from 1836 onwards. Updated by the Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice.

Indian Parliament
The Indian Parliament comprises the President and the two Houses - Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (House of the People). This governmental portal provides links to the official websites of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Indian Treaties Database
Database managed by the Legal and Treaties Division of the Ministry of External Affairs which provides access to treaties, agreements, MoUs etc. entered into by the Government of the Republic of India with foreign countries since 1950.

Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice
Contains texts of historical statutes from 1861.

B. Courts and Case Law

eCourts Services
Provides single point access point to information related to the Supreme Court, all High Courts and District Courts in India.

Supreme Court of India: Judgments
Judgments of the Supreme Court from 1950.

C. Government Documents

india.gov.in
The national portal of India. See also Integrated Government Online Directory.

Law Commission of India
Full text of the Law Commission's reports from Report no.1.

Ministry of Law and Justice
Information on the work of the Ministry and its various departments.

D. General

Legal Information Institute of India (LIIofIndia)
Access to 159 databases of Indian law.

Research Guides:

E. Databases

A. Legislation/Parliament

Knowledge Basket: LegislationNZ
Free to browse NZ Acts (unconsolidated), Regulations, Bills and SOPs and the ‘Shattering Statutes’, covering the period 1987-2007.

New Zealand Legislation
Authoritative source of NZ Acts, Bills and secondary legislation. Published by the Parliamentary Counsel Office.

New Zealand Parliament
Publications include Bills, Hansard (including Historical Hansard) and select committee reports.

New Zealand Treaties Online
NZTO provides an official record of all of New Zealand’s binding treaty obligations at international law. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade is the New Zealand repository of all treaties.

NZLII (New Zealand Legal Information Institute)
Access to New Zealand Legislation and law reform materials. Historical bills are also available here.

B. Courts and Case Law

Courts of New Zealand
Information about the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, High Court and District Court. This website also links to judgments of the various courts.

Judicial Decisions Online (JDO)
Searchable database of judgments and decisions sourced from New Zealand Courts:

  • Supreme Court (all)
  • Court of Appeal (2003 -)
  • High Court (2005 -).

New Zealand's Lost Cases
This project involves the collation of early, unreported New Zealand cases that exist in newspapers, manuscript collections, archives and judges' notebooks. Funded by the New Zealand Law Foundation, the project is primarily concerned with decisions of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal up until 1883 and the Native Land Court, 1863-1895. The Lost Cases are also available in NZLII.

NZLII (New Zealand Legal Information Institute)
Databases administered by NZLII, providing access to case law from NZ courts and tribunals, including the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal and High Court.

C. Government Documents

Govt.nz
Official gateway to New Zealand government websites.

Law Commission (Te Aka Matua o te Ture)
Background information on the work of the New Zealand Law Commission as well as full texts of the Commission's publications.

D. General

NZLII (New Zealand Legal Information Institute)
NZLII, a  joint project of the University of Otago Faculty of Law, University of Canterbury and the Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII), providing free access to primary and secondary legal information.

Research guides:

E. Databases

General

PacLII (Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute)
Initiative of the University of the South Pacific School of Law containing legislation and court decisions from the Pacific Islands including Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa and Tonga.

A. Legislation/Parliament

Parliament of the Republic of South Africa
Access to the Hansard, parliamentary papers, Bills and Acts.

SAFLII (Southern African Legal Information Institute)
Access to South African national legislation.

South African Government
Documents available via this website include Acts, Bills and parliamentary documents.

B. Courts and Case Law

Constitutional Court of South Africa
Cases and judgments of the Court from 1995.

Courts in South Africa
Information about South African courts published by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development.

SAFLII (Southern African Legal Information Institute)
Cases from the various South African courts.

Supreme Court of Appeal
Judgments of the Court from 1999.

C. Government Documents

South Africa Government
Documents available on this website include white papers and green papers.

D. General

SAFLII (Southern African Legal Information Institute)
Online repository of legal information from South Africa but also hosts legal materials from other countries in the region

Research guides:

E. Database

A. Legislation/Parliament

BAILII (British and Irish Legal Information Institute)
Access to legislation from the United Kingdom, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Legislation.gov.uk
Official website for enacted and revised UK legislation.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Incomplete but useful list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from its establishment in1801.

UK Treaties
The UK Treaties Online (UKTO) database gives access to information on over 14,000 treaties to which the UK is or has been a party. Treaty records are based on information received by the Treaty Section of the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office.

UK Parliament
Valuable resources include the Hansard, current bills and select committee reports. The Hansard Digitisation Project enables you to search for historic Hansard (1802 - 2006).

B. Courts and Case Law

BAILII (British and Irish Legal Information Institute)
Search this database for cases from British and Irish courts and tribunals. Cases include recent ones bearing the neutral citations:

Courts and Tribunals Judiciary
Provides information on the England and Wales justice system as well as transcripts of the latest court judgments.

English Reports (1220 - 1873)
PDF copies of these nominate reports are housed in CommonLII.

House of Lords Judgments: Archive
House of Lords judgments from 14 Nov 1996 to 30 July 2009 are published on the UK Parliament website. The judicial role of the House of Lords as the highest appeal court in the UK has been taken over by the Supreme Court.

ICLR.4
WLR Daily case summaries (case citations containing WLR(D)) are published by the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales.

Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: Decided Cases
Decisions from 2009 onwards are available here. Reports of selected JCPC cases from 1809 to 1995, and all JCPC cases from 1996 to the present can also be accessed via BAILLI.

Privy Council Papers
Digital catalogue of the ‘Printed Papers’ of Appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC). Contains key details of over 9000 cases decided between 1792 and1998, links to full-text judgements from BAILII where available, and the full text Printed Papers for 6 cases. Project by the University of Reading and University of Exeter.

The Supreme Court
Judgments of the court from 29 Oct 2009 and summaries of current cases. Also contains the full text of the Rules of the Supreme Court 2009.

C. Government Documents

Competition and Markets Authority
CMA cases and other reports by the authority.

GOV.UK
The official UK public service information provider. Contains official documents including command papers.

Justice
Provides information on the administration and regulation of the justice system in England and Wales.

Law Commission
Contains full texts of the Commission's publications, including reports and consultation papers from 1 Jan 1995. Earlier reports are available via BAILLI.

D. General

BAILII (British and Irish Legal Information Institute)
BAILII provides access to British and Irish case law and legislation, European Union case law, Law Commission reports and other law-related British and Irish material. BAILII is hosted by the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, London. See also: Beta site.

The Guardian: Law
Legal news from the Guardian newspaper.

Hamlyn Lectures Archive
This prestigious series of lectures (1949 - 2009) is made available in PDF on the University of Exeter website.

Research Guides:

E. Databases

A. Legislation/Parliament

Congress.Gov
The official website of Congress contains information on legislative activities, the legislative process, U.S. legislation and congressional records (1900 -)

Legal Information Institute (LII)
Access to U.S. legislation, including the Code of Federal Regulations and uniform laws.

Treaties and Other International Acts Series (TIAS)
Full texts of agreements from the Treaties and Other International Acts Series (1994 -)

Uniform Law Commission
Access to uniform laws enacted by the Commission.

The United States Code
The Code is a consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States. Prepared by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives.

B. Courts and Case Law

Caselaw Access Project
The goal of the CAP by Harvard Law School is to make all published U.S. court decisions freely available to the public online, in a consistent format, digitized from the collection of the Harvard Law Library.

Google Scholar: Case Law
Select the Case Law option in Google Scholar to search for U.S. cases in the federal and state courts.

Supreme Court of the United States
Access to the U.S. Reports (1991 -) and opinions of the Court. Supreme Court rules, orders and journal are also available on this website.

United States Courts
Information on the U.S. court system maintained by the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts.

C. General

American Arbitration Association (AAA)
Alternative dispute resolution guides, rules and procedures.

Legal Information Institute (LII)
Legal portal to U.S. federal and state law by the Cornell Law School.

JURIST
Legal news and commentary service powered by a collaborative virtual team of law student reporters, editors, commentators, designers and developers from 12 law schools in the US, the UK and India, under the direction of Professor Bernard Hibbitts at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law.

U.S. Government Documents
Columbia University has been a depository for U.S. Federal documents since 1882. CLIO has records for most U.S. government depository titles, indicating the location in one of the campus libraries, according to subject.

Research guides:

D. Databases

Research Librarian

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Lee Su-Lin
Contact:
C J Koh Law Library
469D Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259773
Phone: +65 6516 2042
Subjects: Law