Harvard citation style is also known as the author-date referencing style. This guide will show you illustrations of common Harvard citations, guides for extensive needs for Harvard citation and some recommendations on how to manage citations in general.
Do take note that there is some slight variability amongst Harvard citations, such as in the dates and authors field. Check with your professor, lecturer or publisher to clarify which Harvard citation format to use.
Most importantly, whichever format you choose to use, it must be consistent across your entire assignment or thesis.
There are three parts to citation:
Harvard citation style is used typically in Social Sciences, Medical Sciences, Natural Sciences and Humanities. If you are not sure whether to use Harvard citation or other citation systems, please check with your lecturer or professor.
The Harvard style guides/manuals below provide instructions and examples of how to create footnotes and bibliographies in research papers. Some include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods, and guidelines on formatting the final paper.
General rules of the reference list
The following citation builders are freely available from the Internet. NUS Libraries, however, does not provide support for any of these tools.
1 author/editor/translator : In many cases, enterprises fail to understand how the impact of the crisis may affect… (Jackson 2000). Information prominent method. In many cases, Jackson (2000, 67-68) asserts how enterprises fail to understand the severity of the impact… Author prominent method.
2 to 3 authors/editors/translators: State intervention is necessary when… (Sandman & Krieg 2011, p. 94).
More than 3 authors/editors/translators: Marcus et al. (2012) raised a concern over the dwindling production numbers in....
The discovery has led to contention between … (Quah et al. 1993).
No author: Carbon footprints have … (Environmental Rues 2016).
Organization as author: Population growth is forecasted to rise at an exponential… (Economic Agency 2010).
Direct quotes: ‘Buy-ins from government agencies is a leading factor in... ‘(Bridgehorn 1999, p. 22).
Multiple sources from 1 author in single year
It is suggested that… (White 2011a).
According to White (2011b), ….
Multiple sources within same parentheses: Building a foster family would … (Chan 2014; Agatha & Miller 2003; Frederick 2001).
Secondary citations (citing a source given by the reference): It is undesirable that… (Tan 1985).
Tan 1985 is a source cited by the reference source (Knight 2002). Only (Knight 2002) needs to be listed in the reference list or bibliography.
Personal communication (do not need to be cited in reference list or bibliography) - e.g. interviews, phone, email:
Mdm Sue Rabath (Dignity Agency CEO) had commented that….
My interviewee Rebecca Wong was willing to … (ABC Interview 2008 pers. comm., 19 July).
Tables and charts, websites: Sullivan 2006, p. 79