You must provide in-text citations and a bibliograhy or reference list whenever you quote or paraphrase ideas from other authors, in order to:
- provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work. It shows that you have sought out and considered a variety of viewpoints on a given topic.
- show the depth and scope of your research and give credit to authors for their ideas.
- help readers to locate and further explore the sources you consulted.
- avoid charges of plagiarism.
Which sources to cite?
- Direct quotations from a book, article, film, letter, email, lecture, etc.
- Ideas you draw from a source but present entirely in your own words.
- Facts or ideas which are not common knowledge.
- Not just books and articles but statistical data, websites, blogs, etc.
Which citation style?
Ask your module instructor/coordinator/tutor for the preferred citation style and if there are other special formatting instructions you should follow.
Popular citation styles
Find out the citation style that your department or lecturer prefers. Once you have determined the style to follow, use it consistently in your paper, bibliography or reference list.
For resources on popular citation styles, click on the styles listed below :
- ACS (American Chemical Society)
- AMA (American Medical Association)
- APA (American Psychological Association)
- ASA ((American Sociological Association)
- IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
- Legal Style
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
What is EndNote?
EndNote X7 is available from the NUS Computer Centre's Software Catalogue.
EndNote is a software that:
- stores and organizes references found from many sources
- inserts these references into a Word document
- automatically formats your references according to a predefined citation style, and more!