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Citation Styles: MLA

MLA Style Guides

The MLA (Modern Language Association) style was created by the Modern Language Association of America. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers.

There are two parts to MLA: In-text citations and the Works Cited list.

In MLA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  1. In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.
  2. In the Works Cited list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.

The MLA style guides/manuals below provide instructions and examples of how to create footnotes and bibliographies in research papers. Some include advice on grammar and punctuation, research methods, and guidelines on formatting the final paper.

Create citations/bibliography in databases

The MLA International Bibliography database provides the export to citation tools for your marked. 

Steps for generating citations from the results page:

  1. At the results display page, mark relevant records by clicking the undefined icon.
  2. Go to the right panel  and select Go to: Folder View > at the resulting page click on Export.
  3. A list of menu options will be displayed as shown below:

MLA exportefined

Managing Citation and References

Citation or reference managers such as Zotero and EndNote auto-create references by pulling in citations from databases, library catalogues as well as selected search engines. Citations can then be automatically added to your work and formatted in your preferred style.

ZoteroBib helps you build a bibliography instantly from any computer or device, without creating an account or installing any software. This is a community-based, powerful open-source research tool recommended by universities worldwide. It helps you to seamlessly add sources and produce bibliographies.

The following video on using ZoteroBib shows how to generate citations and to create a bibliography for your research assignment.

Citation Generators

The following citation builders are freely available on the web. NUS Libraries, however, do not provide support for any of these tools.